Saturday, September 24, 2016

Prambanan Temple, the Splendor of the World Heritage Site


Prambanan is the largest Hindu temple in Indonesia. Built around the middle of the 9th century by the king of the Sanjaya dynasty, which Balitung Raja Maha Sambu. Such information is based on the contents of Syiwagrha inscription found around Prambanan and is now kept in the National Museum in Jakarta. Stone inscription dated 778 Saka (856 AD), was written in the reign of Rakai Pikatan.


Prambanan temple is located approximately 17 km to the east of Yogyakarta, precisely in the village of Prambanan Subdistrict Bokoharjo. The location is only about 100m from the highway Yogya-Solo. Most of the tourist area, located at an altitude of 154 m above sea level is included in Sleman  Regency. (DIY Province) while others included in the Klaten Regency (Central Java Province)


The original plan of Prambanan rectangular, consisting of the outer courtyard and three courtyards, namely Jaba (outer court), Tengahan (central courtyard) and Njeron (inner court). The outdoor courtyard is an open area that surrounds the outer court. Outer court oblong shape with an area of 390 m2. The first courtyard is surrounded by a stone fence which is now in ruins. Outer court is currently only an empty courtyard. There are not yet known whether the original building or other ornaments in this courtyard.



In the middle of the outer court, there is a second courtyard, the central courtyard is a rectangular area of 222 m2. Former central courtyard is also surrounded by stone fences today already collapsed. This courtyard consists of four terraces, getting into the higher. On the first terrace, the patio bottom, there were 68 small temples are lined up around, is divided into four lines by connecting roads antarpintu courtyard. In the second terrace there are 60 temples, on the second terrace there are 52 temples, and in the fourth terrace, or top terrace, there were 44 temples. The whole temple in the middle of this courtyard has the same shape and size, the ground-plan area of 6 m2 and a height of 14 m. Almost all the temples in the central courtyard is now in ruins. The only remaining ruins alone.


The inner court, the highest court of lying and who is regarded as the most sacred place. The rectangular courtyard area of 110 m2, with a height of approximately 1.5 m from the top terrace central courtyard. This courtyard is surrounded by plaster and stone fences. On the four sides are arch-shaped gate paduraksa. Currently only a gate on the south side that is still intact. In front of each of the top gate of the court there is a pair of small temples, berdenah square base measuring 1, 5 m2 with a height of 4 m.


In the inner courtyard of the temple there are two rows of the longitudinal direction of the north south. In the west there are 3 rows of the temple facing east. The temple is located at the north is Vishnu, in the middle is the temple of Shiva, and the south is the Brahma temple. In the east there are also rows of three temples facing west. Third temple called the temple a vehicle (vehicle = vehicle), because each temple is named in accordance with the animals who are the gods that temple mount in his presence.

Image result for lay out candi prambanan 

Temple facing Vishnu temple is Garuda temple, which is dealing with the Shiva temple is a temple Nandi (bull), and dealing with the Brahma temple is a temple Geese. Thus, the six temples facing each other to form the hallway. Vishnu, Brahma, Geese, Garuda and Nandi have the same shape and size, which berdenah square base measuring 15 m2 with a height of 25 m. In the far north and the south aisle of each there is a small temple facing each other, which is called the Temple Apit.



Architecture Prambanan Hindu architecture follows the tradition of Vastu Shastra. Designs incorporate mandala temple in temple settings and also typical Hindu temple tower towering. Prambanan originally named Shivagrha and is dedicated to Lord Shiva. Prambanan is designed to mimic Meru, the sacred mountain abode of the Hindu gods Shiva and houses. The entire temple complex is a model of the universe according to Hindu cosmology and the layers Loka.. Just like Candi Borobudur, Prambanan temple also recognize the hierarchy of zones, extending from less sacred to the divine world. Every Hindu and Buddhist concepts have their own way, but the main concept is similar. Whether it's a closed room plan (horizontal) or the temple structure (vertical) which consists of three zones:
  1. Bhurloka (in Buddhism: Kamadhatu), the lowest realm of ordinary human beings, humans, animals too vicious. Where people are still bound by desire, passion and a way of life that is not holy. Outdoor courtyard and a foot (base) of each part of the temple that symbolizes the world bhurloka.
  2. Bhuvarloka (in Buddhism: Rupadhatu), natural middle saint, sage, ascetic, and the gods were lower. People here are beginning to see the light of truth. The central courtyard and the body of each temple symbolized bhuvarloka world.
  3. Svarloka (in Buddhism: Arupadhatu), the sacred nature of the supreme deity, also known as svargaloka. Inner courtyard and roof of the temple symbolizes svarloka world. Prambanan temple roof adorned and crowned with Ratna (Sanskrit: jewels). In ancient Javanese temple architecture, Ratna in the Hindu equivalent of the Buddhist stupa, and located as the pinnacle of the temple.

In the region of Prambanan Temples there are three bigger temples called the Temple of the largest Shiva, Vishnu and Brahma temple. Shiva temple is the largest temple. Plan is essentially a square measuring 34 m2 with a height of 47 m. Shiva temple consists of 4 rooms that are not interconnected.
Vishnu Temple located in the north of the temple of Shiva. The temple sits on the shelf that forms the lobby berlangkan. Ladder to climb onto the surface of the shelf is located on the east side. Along the walls of the temple were lined with sculptured panels depicting Lokapala. .Brahma Temple also only has one room with a door facing east. 


Prambanan Temple is decorated with a narrative that tells the Hindu epics; Ramayana and Krishnayana. This revolves around a series of reliefs carved into the wall next to the balustrade along the hallway gallery that surrounded the three main temples. Relief is read from right to left with a clockwise motion around the temple. This is in accordance with the ritual circumambulation, which surrounds the building sacred ritual clockwise by pilgrims. Ramayana story begins on the east side of the Shiva temple and proceeded to the temple of Brahma temple. On the balustrade of Vishnu temple there is a relief Krishnayana narrative that tells the life of Krishna as one avatar of Vishnu.   


Relief Ramayana illustrates how Shinta, Rama's wife, kidnapped by Ravana. Commander nation Wanara (ape), Hanuman, come to the aid of Lanka to seek Rama Shinta. This story also appears in the Ramayana, the Javanese wayang performances are staged regularly at Trimurti open stage every night of the full moon. Trimurti stage background is a magnificent view of the three main temples are illuminated by light. 

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