Tuesday, February 6, 2024

Mount Tambora, Ever Darken the World

Administratively Mount Tambora is situated between two districts, namely Dompu (partially feet south side to northwest) and Bima (flanks the south side to the northwest, and the feet to the top side of the east to the north), the island of Sumbawa, Nusa Tenggara west with coordinate lines precisely at 8 ° 15 'latitude and 118 ° East.
Before 1815, Mount Tambora is the highest mountain on the entire island of Sumbawa which peaks towering to a height of about 4,300 meters above sea level (from paras seawater) or more. So high that it was clearly visible from the east coast of the island even if that place is within 300 km. Colossal eruption led to the summit of Mount Tambora great trimmed so that its height was reduced to 2,851 meters above sea level. Not only that, now gave way to the peak form of a giant crater (caldera) with diameter of about 6-7 km with a maximum depth of 1,250 meters, making it the deepest caldera across the face of the Earth.

The eruption of Mount Tambora, which reached peak virulence in over a period of 5 to 15 April 1815. The eruption was spitting out 160 cubic kilometers (160,000 million cubic meters) of volcanic material. are flung up to an altitude of 43 km in a super-eruption kolossal with 7 VEI (Volcano Explosivity Index) scale. It is the scale of the eruption of the highest ever recorded in the written history of human civilization. It releases energy was incredible, reaching 34,000 megatons of TNT, or 1.5 times greater than all the energy stored in the entire nuclear arsenal at the height of the cold war. Billions of tons of volcanic ash is very fine shot high to reach the stratosphere. With him carried away and hundreds of millions of tons of sulfur gases, which then reacts with water to form droplets of sulfuric acid. Alloys are both formed sunscreen volcanic covering themselves from head corners of the Earth's atmosphere at an altitude of between 10 and 30 km. This sunscreen makes 25% of sunlight is reduced so that only 75% have been successfully transmitted to Earth. As a result, the average temperature of Earth's surface decreased with all its consequences. As a comparison, the energy of the eruption of Krakatoa in 1883 only one-eighth the 1815 Tambora eruption. Tambora eruption rumbling heard at Sumatra Island. Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles who ruled Bengkulu at that time thought the sound of the eruption of Tambora is the voice booming cannon 

As a result of this eruption was recorded in 1816 as the "year without a summer" in Europe and North America, due to dust and volcanic particles thrown into the atmosphere blocking the sun. In 1816 the world's climate changes quite dramatically resulting in crop failure in many parts of the world. Not only in Indonesia alone. In Europe and North America, this effect can be felt Not only crop failure, the effect of this eruption also killed many cattle and resulting famine. Absolutely awful. The eruption of Mount Tambora also lead to the disappearance of the three kingdoms in West Nusa Tenggara, namely: the kingdom of Tambora, kingdom of Pekat and the Kingdom of Sanggar

The eruption of Mount Tambora has raised global temperature anomalies, until the temperature dropped about three degrees Celsius (global cooling), and destroyed the crops and cause great famine in many countries, including North America, China, India and Europe.. Tambora eruption continued impact and has caused the spread of typhoid and dysentery are believed to have claimed lives in Europe to 200 thousand people in the period 1816-1819.

In a theory presented by the Society Napoleon Napoleon's defeat affected by climate disasters caused by the Tambora. Rain and thunderstorms in the evening battle followed by the cold temperatures (although today it has entered the summer) has led to Napoleon's troops stuck in the mud that led to the effectiveness of the cavalry and cannon ammunition becomes unusable. When in fact, Napoleon won in the number of troops than his opponent. Napoleon's defeat has changed the history and form an alliance that would affect the constellation of countries in Europe until the next century

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